We use kinetic nonlattice Monte Carlo atomistic simulations to investigate the physical mechanisms for boron cluster formation and dissolution in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) processing, and the role of Si interstitials in the different processes. For this purpose, B implants in crystalline Si as well as B implants in preamorphized Si are analyzed. For subamorphizing B implants, a high concentration of Si interstitials overlaps with the B profile and this causes a very quick B deactivation for both low- and high-dose B implants. For B implants in preamorphized silicon, B is activated during the regrowth of the amorphous layer if the B concentration is lower than 1020 cm−3 and remains active upon annealing. However, if B concentrations higher than 1020 cm−3 are present, as occurs in the formation of extensions in p-channel MOS transistors, B atoms are not completely activated during the regrowth. Moreover, the injection of Si interstitials from the end-of-range defects leads to additional B deactivation in the regrown layer during subsequent annealing. If the end-of-range defects overlap with a B profile, even of relatively low concentration, as it occurs for B pockets in n-channel MOS transistors, very quick and local B deactivation occurs in the high Si-interstitial concentration region.
PDF: Atomistic analysis of the evolution of boron activation during annealing in crystalline and preamorphized silicon